Injecting Dependencies Into Epics

Injecting your dependencies into your Epics can help with testing.

Let's say you want to interact with the network. You could use the ajax helpers directly from rxjs:

import { ajax } from 'rxjs/observable/dom/ajax';

const fetchUserEpic = (action$, store) =>
  action$.ofType('FETCH_USER')
    .mergeMap(({ payload }) =>
      ajax.getJSON(`/api/users/${payload}`)
        .map(response => ({
          type: 'FETCH_USER_FULFILLED',
          payload: response
        }))
    );

But there is a problem with this approach: Your file containing the epic imports its dependency directly, so mocking it is much more difficult.

One approach might be to mock window.XMLHttpRequest, but this is a lot more work and now you're not just testing your Epic, you're testing that RxJS correctly uses XMLHttpRequest a certain way when in fact that shouldn't be the goal of your test.

Injecting dependencies

To inject dependencies you can use createEpicMiddleware's dependencies configuration option:

import { createEpicMiddleware, combineEpics } from 'redux-observable';
import { ajax } from 'rxjs/observable/dom/ajax';
import rootEpic from './somewhere';

const epicMiddleware = createEpicMiddleware(rootEpic, {
  dependencies: { getJSON: ajax.getJSON }
});

Anything you provide will then be passed as the third argument to all your Epics, after the store.

Now your Epic can use the injected getJSON, instead of importing it itself:

// Notice the third argument is our injected dependencies!
const fetchUserEpic = (action$, store, { getJSON }) =>
  action$.ofType('FETCH_USER')
    .mergeMap(({ payload }) =>
      getJSON(`/api/users/${payload}`)
        .map(response => ({
          type: 'FETCH_USER_FULFILLED',
          payload: response
        }))
    );

To test, you can just call your Epic directly, passing in a mock for getJSON:

import { ActionsObservable } from 'redux-observable';
import { fetchUserEpic } from './somewhere/fetchUserEpic';

const mockResponse = { name: 'Bilbo Baggins' };
const action$ = ActionsObservable.of({ type: 'FETCH_USERS_REQUESTED' });
const store = null; // not needed for this epic
const dependencies = {
  getJSON: url => Observable.of(mockResponse)
};

// Adapt this example to your test framework and specific use cases
fetchUserEpic(action$, store, dependencies)
  .toArray() // buffers all emitted actions until your Epic naturally completes()
  .subscribe(actions => {
    assertDeepEqual(actions, [{
      type: 'FETCH_USER_FULFILLED',
      payload: mockResponse
    }]);
  });

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